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Glossary

Particulate pollutants

Particulate pollutants are divided depending on the grain size:
- dust macroscopic fragmentation of a grain size from 1 to 1000 BOM,
- dust fragmentation colloidal particle size of 0.001 to 1 BOM.
Depending on the source of the dust or mold its distribution division applies to:
- dust dispersion, i.e. caused by mechanical crushing of solids (e.g. coal dust in crushing and grinding of coal in power plants),
-dust condensation caused by condensation and solidification of pairs of various chemicals (e.g. soot), occurring only in the class of colloidal fragmentation.
The formation of particulate pollution is inextricably linked with all processes of production and combustion processes. Particularly large amounts of particulate matter are formed during combustion of solid fuels. The amount and characteristics of dust, which arise in the combustion process of solid fuels depends on:
- type of fuel - the degree of fragmentation, content and mineralogical composition of ash, agglomerating, volatility, humidity, etc.,
- combustion conditions - the type of grill, heat flow combustion chamber, the combustion temperature, air flow conditions and flue like.
Moreover, metallurgical processes and production of construction materials, especially cement production are also "dust-producing". Particulates include the following dusts: from fuel combustion, cement-lime and refractory materials, silicon, artificial fertilizers, carbon-graphite and soot, brown coal, surfactants and polymers and particularly dangerous particulate pollutants such as chromium, mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, manganese and the others. Particularly toxic particulates include aromatic hydrocarbons (including carcinogenic benzopyrene). The degree of harmfulness of dust depends on its concentration in the atmosphere, chemical composition and mineralogy. Among the mineralogical dusts the most harmful is quartz.

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